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Today, the European whitefish is one of the major fish groups in Switzerland declared endangered, and thus all species are protected by the 1982 Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats.
Biological research into the processes that maintain and generate biodiversity may help to understand and prevent such extinctions .
They are well preserved both in waterlogged and dry conditions.
These waterlogged preserved remains were dried at room temperature for one week, after which DNA was extracted (Table 1 and Table S1).
Two major mt DNA clades, C and N, known from contemporary European whitefish populations were detected, suggesting co-occurrence for at least 5000 years.
In the future, NGS technologies may be used to explore spp.) are widespread across central and northern European lakes [1,2,3].
The application of SNP typing, NGS, and DNA capture-enrichment methods to ancient fish, however, awaits the development of genomic tools for population studies that are, unfortunately, still not readily available for most modern fish groups .
Nuclear markers (SNPs) and NGS are currently being developed and adopted for extant remains are a source of a DNA by the PCR amplification of mt DNA d-loop fragments in 48 individual elements from two waterlogged and eight dryland archaeological sites in Switzerland.